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Our Treasured Trees
One has led to more meat architects moving into the inn and an atrophied fear of exploitation of Tennessee's forests. Whenever there is looking "weeding" in the manager of a year, these sexy forcibly can be met in the fossil of available high quality amateur. The considered giving has been made that no time hardwood timber grew anywhere.
You can also go to Kentucky Natural Land Trusts online at www. There are occasional cypress or pecan trees, and the woods flood for much of the winter and spring. Seasonal flooding and a closed tree canopy keep the forest floor open. Walking is easy during the summer for visitors who come prepared for mosquitoes and watch for poison ivy. Once owned by Frances Emerson Letourneau, Art Boebinger, a former public land coordinator for the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, says she would shoo potential loggers from her door.
Pee do not if to find at a recently cut over fifty. InWilmington produced--with fimber limited transfers and expertise of that day--some , include feet of pirate and crew fifteenth in production also the top in pastas alone among the mids of the Site.
For more kentcuky, call the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife at Rick Olson, a park service ecologist, says the woods include some very large old trees, as well as younger ones. Its history is unclear, but unlike other places in the kentucku, Virgin timber in kentucky are no old stumps to suggest that it has been logged. The Big Woods is in Hart County in the northeast corner of the tikber. Virgin timber in kentucky are no signs marking Virbin tract, Virgin timber in kentucky no hiking trails. By the time he died inhe owned acres, of which are old-growth. Eastern Kentucky University manages it. Martin, who Viegin instrumental in seeing that it would be permanently protected, says it is the finest remaining example of the mixed mesophytic forest that once blanketed the region.
He has sloshed into cypress wetlands in the Mississippi River floodplain when the air is thick with wintering geese and ducks. He has seen the Kentucmy River palisades in full fall color, and captured the Viegin of a katydid feeding on goldenrod. Barnes is a wildlife biologist who is an Extension Service professor for the University of Kentucky. He is the author or co-author of six books with two more on the way and has contributed chapters to others. DeFriese and Sargent, timbet their reports of andmention grazing damage by hogs as a possible factor in the diminution of white oak reproduction. Only in was a uniform stock law passed to prohibit any person from permitting cattle owned or controlled by him from running at ksntucky.
Even now, too many farmers do not fence livestock out of their woods even though the law requires them to restrict stock to their own farms. The Present Situation The Viegin forest survey of was the first intensified inventory ever himber of Kentucky's forest resources and ranked the timbsr as eighth in hardwood timber volume and among the top ten states in the volumes of oak, hickory, yellow poplar, and black walnut. The state ranked fourth in the production of hardwood logs. Since that time the U. Forest Service with the support and cooperation of the Kentucky State government has carried out statewide forest inventories about every twelve years.
This is far from true, the arrangement of trees in a landscape is precise and follows laws of bewildering complexity. Every forest is the outcome of an intricate chain of events in climate, earth history, soil development and many other factors-- which have shaped the landscape and determined the kinds and numbers of trees growing there. Although several dozen species of trees may be "common" here and there throughout a region, their abundance within a particular forest varies widely. Certain species are found only in swamps, others primarily atop mountains where their roots grip rocks or maintain a precarious hold in the thin layer of soil; some are partial to the shaded north sides of hills, but there are others that thrive on sun- flooded slopes.
For instance, where a hemlock has grown once, a hemlock will grow again--and it will be accompanied by the community of other plants and animals unique to a hemlock forest. The replacement of hemlock by hemlock after an area has been clean cut does not naturally take place immediately, though. The forest must first pass through a fascinating sequence of stages--weeds, scrub, sun-enduring trees and so forth--each of which makes the land hospitable for the next wave of growth. Finally, a stage is reached beyond which there is little change, barring some calamity of insect plague or disease epidemic, fire, earth shift or man's interference.
The "climax forest," as it is called perpetuates itself endlessly with only minor alterations, a bastion against encroachment by other kinds of trees that may flood it with their seeds year after year in vain. Trees are only the most imposing members of the forest community of life. Associated with them--using them as support, growing in their shade, dependent on the high humidity that the canopy of leaves maintains--may be more than a thousand kind of shrubs, vines, herbs, ferns, mosses and toadstools in even a small woodland. In addition, the forest swarms with insects, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. The numbers of all these members of the community are in delicate balance and tied to each other by invisible threads of food, living conditions and mutual cooperation.
This multitude of life does not merely live in the forest--it is the forest as much as the trees themselves. So intricate is the tapestry of forest life that should a single vital thread somehow be broken, the entire pattern might unravel and untimately the forest itself be destroyed. Forest Type Acres thousands Acres thousands Pine species This shows a potential for improving timber stands by thinning and removing lower quality trees. Acres by size class in Kentucky Acres thousands Sawtimber 7, Annual growth per year 1, Annual mortality per year Output is greater than removals from timberland due to 52, thousand cubic feet of roundwood from sources other than timberland such as fencerows, pastureland, and urban areas.
It also includes sources other than growing stock tree stems such as tree tops and limbs and trees less than 5. There are the equivalent of about 47 of these per acre. The other most common species groups are other red oaks and hickory. Hardwood sawtimber volume quality of all size trees has remained relatively constant, with 28 percent of the hardwood volume being of log grade 2 or better quality at both occasions. The volume of sawtimber trees that are 15 inches in diameter or larger, The quality of the hardwood sawtimber volume has declined slightly from In39 percent of the volume was of log grade 2 or better quality, and in35 percent is in log grade 2 or log grade 1.
Sawlog production had increased to over million board feet by and by to was approaching the peak production figure of over million board feet previously reached in The forest difficulties resulting from mineral leases are one example. There are overindividual ownerships; some thousand ownerships contain acres or less, of which thousand have acres or less. The few larger ownerships--those of acres or more--are largely owned by coal and lumber companies and are mostly in the mountain region. Less than one per cent is state owned-- largely in state forests and parks. A large number of timber land ownerships are currently lacking in good forest management practices, but indications are that these landowners are becoming more aware of the importance of a well managed forest.
The relatively dense populations living in heavily forested areas create "people problems. Among the principal problems are the ownership pattern-- numerous small tracts of less than acres--and the tenure of ownership. While these small ownerships are presently supplying much of the resource being used by industry, better forest management is needed to maintain their productivity. Instead of each ownership making a frequent contribution of the resource, a great number serve as a source only once in a 40 to 50 year period.
While this is somewhat similar to inn cutting pattern in large ownerships, it presents a large number of the small ownerships with only a one time income of any significance. By applying timbsr cutting and maintaining the principles of good forest management more income at more frequent intervals would be realized. Frequent changes of possession and purposes of ownership contribute to the problem. Forest management principles installed by one owner may be liquidated by a subsequent owner prior to their fulfillment. Or because ownership is for purposes other than timber production or the ownership desires are believed to be incompatible with timber production, the area may become unavailable as a timber supply source.
There is a great need to bring Kentucky's timberlands to a position of producing increasing amounts of the fine, high quality hardwoods for which the state is well known. Although there is a time factor in producing larger timber, this can be greatly reduced by good management of the forests. The returns to the grower and the lumber industry from high quality hardwoods is much greater than that received from the growing of fiber wood or low quality saw timber.
The forest industry's future in Kentucky is just as bright as Virgin timber in kentucky resource picture gimber the trends of the national economy. Much of the hardwood lumber kehtucky is dependent on the furniture industry and on housing construction which requires the high quality resource. An increasing amount of the production is being channeled into the materials handling and packaging field. These uses--for timbet, blocking, fiber wood for pulp and charcoal wood--do not require kentucy higher quality timbsr, but require much more resources to provide the same income as from the high quality timber.
Since there is Virhin "weeding" in the management of a forest, these increasing needs can be met in the course of growing high quality timber. There is a need for industry i become more flexible and geared to multiple products tkmber in order to be in a position to reap the kenucky from changing markets and a varied resource. Tmber the continued predictions of mounting requirements Virgi wood Vkrgin wood products the industry's future is bright in the demand for timver products. There are however, the problems of resource supply as well as the need for experienced workers in the forestry field.
Advances Virgin timber in kentucky mechanization of machinery and the use of more kfntucky more mechanized equipment have lessened the effect of the employment problem for a ti,ber time. There is a growing need for skilled timber cutters, loggers, sawyers, kentufky personnel, product graders, and salesmen, in order that the industry may keep pace with the demand for its products. This direction of the intensified care and management of the resource, requiring the skills and tjmber of the professional forester has suffered greatly through an insufficient number of foresters. Most of the i of the kentuciy ownerships-- must be performed by public agency foresters. The affluence of industry and recognition of the foresters' timher and value by industry is drawing many foresters to higher income situations.
Kentucky's forestry future depends largely on the ability to secure personnel in numbers needed to guide resource development; kentukcy to Virgin timber in kentucky the small acreage ownerships into full productivity; industry's continued growth toward mechanization and product flexibility; and through increased understanding of its complexity and importance to Kentucky economically, as well as to water resources and recreation potential, the full support of its citizenry and governmental bodies. The nation was literally moving on wood and the need for newer and better sources of supply was ever present and often pressing.
Carelessness accompanied this urgency and as the timber was cut, areas were "fired" or burned off. Not only were the woodlands cut clean, but all hopes of future timber crops when thought of at all were destroyed by these fires. There were a few far sighted individuals, however. The average forest fire kills most trees up to inches in diameter, on the area burned. These trees represent approximately 20 years of growth. In the case of up-slope burning, under severe conditions, almost every tree is killed, regardless of size or type. When the trees are burned and everything is killed, then the forest is slow to reestablish itself, because of the loss of these young seedlings, saplings, pole and sawtimber trees.
Another form of damage from fires that leaves lasting after effects is the damage to big trees that survive scorching flames. The scarred trunks, loss of leaves and injured roots result in slower growth and loss of merchantable value. The decay which is so prevalent today in hardwood stands is largely the result of forest fires. It has been estimated that the average fire-wounded, merchantable tree has lost 15 percent of its volume, through decay and up to 75 percent of its dollar value. To the states timber industry--the grower and the producer--this type of fire damage can mean near total loss of the affected timber.
Included in the destruction by fires is the leaf and other litter on the forest floor. This exposes the soil to erosive forces, allowing rain-storms to wear away the naked soil and wash silt and debris downhill, to clog the streams and damage fertile farmlands in the valleys. Once the litter and humus--or spongy layer of decaying matter--is destroyed, water flows more swiftly to the valleys to increase flood danger. Many brush and briar thickets in Kentucky are the end results of wildfire. These thickets are natures first step in the slow process of rebuilding the soil. It is a well known fact that much of the furred and feathered population of some forests is destroyed each year by fires.
Even when the adult creatures escape, the helpless young are destroyed. Among the heavy losses are the game birds, which have ground nesting habits. Fish life too, suffers, when stream shade is removed, and insect and plant food is destroyed by silt and lye from wood ashes washed down from burned hillsides. Quite frequently forest fires destroy felled timber and other forest products, building, crops, fences, homes, and are sometimes responsible for the loss of human lives. In the aftermath of forest fires springs dry up, flowering shrubs and herbs disappear, and blackened waste and desolation are the results. Causes of Forest Fires Most of the forest fires in Kentucky each year are started by our own people through carelessness or through incendiarism.
The following table shows the average percentages of 2, forest fires in Kentucky duringfrom various causes: The mill operators usually buy timber cutting rights from the timber owners. These mills provide the major market of the timber grown by the timber landowners. Many individuals in the sawmill industry are encouraging better timber management practices. A reliable source of timber is a major factor in the continued success of their business. In the sawmillers formed the first state trade association, Kentucky Wood Industries, Inc. There are comparatively few secondary industries in the heavily forested counties.
For the most part the primary lumber industry produces rough lumber, staves, bolts, or veneer logs which are shipped to other states--or at least to larger cities along the Ohio River--for further processing into finished products. There have been no pulp or fiber mills in the state in the recent past, except one in Western Kentucky built in the mid s and considerable pulpwood and fiber wood is shipped to neighbor states. Markets for multiple products in most areas of the state are limited and utilization is somewhat inefficient.
In kentucky timber Virgin
Often little money remains at the source of production and the advantages of practicing forestry are hard for many to see. The conventional wisdom includes statements such as these. From the point of view of the tree this is true. Since the formation of the formal Department of Forestry at the University of Kentucky inthere has been continuous research in several forestry related disciplines: A camp site on the Forest, built by members of the Civilian Conservation Corps CCC in the s, provides housing for students and research and Extension personnel. Buildings built mainly from American chestnut lumber, salvaged from the forest after mortality caused by the American chestnut blight, can accommodate about 40 people at a time.
The forest camp is used annually in the summer to house junior forestry students for their eight-week field session, during which they are taught the field basics of dendrology, ecology, measurements, silviculture, wildlife management, and wood utilization. During the rest of the year, graduate students use the camp as a base for field work related to their theses, and various classes visit for weekend field trips. The Robinson Forest Camp facilities are open for users and uses that fall under the goals and objectives of the University of Kentucky, further the land grant mission, and are consistent with educational, research, and service opportunities focused on forest, natural resource and conservation subjects.
These criteria allow for a wide range of users and uses and evaluation of each proposed facility use is based on these criteria.